The feast of “Dedication” is called “Hanukkah” in the Hebrew language. It is written in John 10: 22, 23: ”And it was at Jerusalem the Feast of Dedication, and it was winter. And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon’s porch.”
All questions regarding this feast one must begin with the Prophecy inDaniel chapter 8 regarding the beginning of the Greek empire.
Daniel:8:8: ”Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.”
The he goat that waxed great was Alexander the great and when was most strong was when all the dark skinned nations were subdued under him, he then died. Prior to his death he divided his empire among four of his most notable generals towards the four kingdoms of his realm.
GENERAL CASSANDER WAS GIVEN MACEDONIA; GENERAL LYSIMACHUS WAS GIVEN THRACE/ASIA MINOR; GENERAL SELEUCUS WAS GIVEN SYRIA AND GENERAL PTOLEMY WAS GIVEN EGYPT.
Daniel: 8:9: ”And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.”
And out of General Seleucus came forth his son Antiochus who became exceeding great and extended his rule over the south which is Egypt [Daniel 11:5,1 Macc.1:16] and toward the east which is Elymais and Armenia [1 Macc.1:3:31,37;1 Macc.6:1-4] and of course the pleasant land is Israel.
Daniel:8:10: ”And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.”
The host of heaven are the Isaelites as in Exodus 12:41, Antiochuscast many Israelites small and great to the ground in war and stamped upon them by indoctrinating them with his philosophies.
Daniel:8:11: ”Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.”
Antiochus magnified himself even to the Lord and ended the daily sacrifice and the place of the Lords sanctuary [the Temple] was defiled [1 Macc.1:44-47]
Daniel:8:12: ”And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.”
The host that was given to Antiochus were disobedient Israeliteswho rebelled against God’s laws of sacrifice for mercy by reason of their desire to sin, and cast down the truth –the Most High’scommandments ie. Psalms 119:151 to be forgotten and practiced sin and prospered in sin.
Daniel:8:13: ”Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?”
The transgression of Desolation is explained in 1 Maccabees 1:37:“Thus they shed innocent blood on every side of the sanctuary, and defiled it:” verse 38: ”Insomuch that the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled because of them: whereupon the city was made an habitation of strangers, and became strange to those that were born in her and her own children left her.”
Back to Daniel 8:14: ”And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.”
2300 days was the historic account of the abomination of Desolation which first occurred approximately from 171B.C. to 165 B.C. and then shall the sanctuary be cleansed meaning restored unto the Most High hence came “The Feast of Dedication”
This prophecy continues in Daniel: 11:31: “And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.”
And power shall stand on Antiochus part and the Greeks shall pollute the Most High’s Sanctuary and shall end God’s laws of sacrifice for sins and they shall place in the sanctuary Idols and sacrifice pigs and make all that love and fear the Lord flee/desolate.
Daniel:11:32: ”And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.”
The people that do know their God shall be strong and do exploits began with the Levite Mattathias and those that gathered unto him. Read 1 Maccabees 2:19-30,42-47. The exploits they did was smote sinful men pulled down pagan altars circumcised all children they found that were uncircumcised and recovered the book of the law out of the hand of the Greeks which they had stolen.
Daniel:11:33: ”And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.”
Daniel:11:34: ”Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.”
When Mattathias died Israel was given a little help in Mattathias son named Judas who was called Maccabee [meaning the hammer]. TheLord used Judas to cleanse the sanctuary as prophesied in Daniel 8:14.
Daniel:11:35: ”And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.”
Judas Maccabee finally fell in battle as did each of his brothers.
Daniel:11:36: ”And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.”
The king Antiochus shall do according to his own will and exalt himself and magnify himself above every god hence he took the nameEpiphanes meaning ‘God manifest on earth.’
Now let’s read the historic account in 1st Maccabees chapter 4.
1st Maccabees: 4:1: ”Then took Gorgias five thousand footmen, and a thousand of the best horsemen, and removed out of the camp by night;”
1st Maccabees: 4:2: ”To the end he might rush in upon the camp of the Jews, and smite them suddenly. And the men of the fortress were his guides.”
1st Maccabees:4:3: ”Now when Judas heard thereof he himself removed, and the valiant men with him, that he might smite the king’s army which was at Emmaus,
4: While as yet the forces were dispersed from the camp.”
1st Maccabees:4:5: ”In the mean season came Gorgias by night into the camp of Judas: and when he found no man there, he sought them in the mountains: for said he, These fellows flee from us.”
1st Maccabees:4:6: ”But as soon as it was day, Judas shewed himself in the plain with three thousand men, who nevertheless had neither armour nor swords to their minds.”
1st Maccabees:4:7: ”And they saw the camp of the heathen, that it was strong and well harnessed, and compassed round about with horsemen; and these were expert of war.”
1st Maccabees:4:8: ”Then said Judas to the men that were with him, Fear ye not their multitude, neither be ye afraid of their assault.”
1st Maccabees:4:9: ”Remember how our fathers were delivered in the Red sea, when Pharaoh pursued them with an army.”
1st Maccabees:4:10: ”Now therefore let us cry unto heaven, if peradventure the Lord will have mercy upon us, and remember the covenant of our fathers, and destroy this host before our face this day:”
1st Maccabees:4:11: ”That so all the heathen may know that there is one who delivereth and saveth Israel.”
12: Then the strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw them coming over against them.
13: Wherefore they went out of the camp to battle; but they that were with Judas sounded their trumpets.
14: So they joined battle, and the heathen being discomfited fled into the plain.
15: Howbeit all the hindmost of them were slain with the sword: for they pursued them unto Gazera, and unto the plains of Idumea, and Azotus, and Jamnia, so that there were slain of them upon a three thousand men.
16: This done, Judas returned again with his host from pursuing them,
17: And said to the people, Be not greedy of the spoil inasmuch as there is a battle before us,
18: And Gorgias and his host are here by us in the mountain: but stand ye now against our enemies, and overcome them, and after this ye may boldly take the spoils.
19: As Judas was yet speaking these words, there appeared a part of them looking out of the mountain:
20: Who when they perceived that the Jews had put their host to flight and were burning the tents; for the smoke that was seen declared what was done:
21: When therefore they perceived these things, they were sore afraid, and seeing also the host of Judas in the plain ready to fight,
22: They fled every one into the land of strangers.
23: Then Judas returned to spoil the tents, where they got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches.
24: After this they went home, and sung a song of thanksgiving, and praised the Lord in heaven: because it is good, because his mercy endureth forever.
25: Thus Israel had a great deliverance that day.
26: Now all the strangers that had escaped came and told Lysias what had happened:
27: Who, when he heard thereof, was confounded and discouraged, because neither such things as he would were done unto Israel, nor such things as the king commanded him were come to pass.
28: The next year therefore following Lysias gathered together threescore thousand choice men of foot, and five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them.
29: So they came into Idumea, and pitched their tents at Bethsura, and Judas met them with ten thousand men.
30: And when he saw that mighty army, he prayed and said, Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, who didst quell the violence of the mighty man by the hand of thy servant David, and gavest the host of strangers into the hands of Jonathan the son of Saul, and his armourbearer;
31: Shut up this army in the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be confounded in their power and horsemen:
32: Make them to be of no courage, and cause the boldness of their strength to fall away, and let them quake at their destruction:
33: Cast them down with the sword of them that love thee, and let all those that know thy name praise thee with thanksgiving.
34: So they joined battle; and there were slain of the host of Lysias about five thousand men, even before them were they slain.
35: Now when Lysias saw his army put to flight, and the manliness of Judas’ soldiers, and how they were ready either to live or die valiantly, he went into Antiochia, and gathered together a company of strangers, and having made his army greater than it was, he purposed to come again into Judea.
36: Then said Judas and his brethren, Behold, our enemies are discomfited: let us go up to cleanse and dedicate the sanctuary.
37: Upon this all the host assembled themselves together, and went up into mount Sion.
38: And when they saw the sanctuary desolate, and the altar profaned, and the gates burned up, and shrubs growing in the courts as in a forest, or in one of the mountains, yea, and the priests’ chambers pulled down;
39: They rent their clothes, and made great lamentation, and cast ashes upon their heads,
40: And fell down flat to the ground upon their faces, and blew an alarm with the trumpets, and cried toward heaven.
41: Then Judas appointed certain men to fight against those that were in the fortress, until he had cleansed the sanctuary.
42: So he chose priests of blameless conversation, such as had pleasure in the law:
43: Who cleansed the sanctuary, and bare out the defiled stones into an unclean place.
44: And when as they consulted what to do with the altar of burnt offerings, which was profaned;
45: They thought it best to pull it down, lest it should be a reproach to them, because the heathen had defiled it: wherefore they pulled it down,
46: And laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, until there should come a prophet to shew what should be done with them.
47: Then they took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar according to the former;
48: And made up the sanctuary, and the things that were within the temple, and hallowed the courts.
49: They made also new holy vessels, and into the temple they brought the candlestick, and the altar of burnt offerings, and of incense, and the table.
50: And upon the altar they burned incense, and the lamps that were upon the candlestick they lighted, that they might give light in the temple.
51: Furthermore they set the loaves upon the table, and spread out the veils, and finished all the works which they had begun to make.
52: Now on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month, which is called the month Casleu, in the hundred forty and eighth year, they rose up betimes in the morning,
53: And offered sacrifice according to the law upon the new altar of burnt offerings, which they had made.
54: Look, at what time and what day the heathen had profaned it, even in that was it dedicated with songs, and citherns, and harps, and cymbals.
55: Then all the people fell upon their faces, worshipping and praising the God of heaven, who had given them good success.
56: And so they kept the dedication of the altar eight days and offered burnt offerings with gladness, and sacrificed the sacrifice of deliverance and praise.
57: They decked also the forefront of the temple with crowns of gold, and with shields; and the gates and the chambers they renewed, and hanged doors upon them.
58: Thus was there very great gladness among the people, for that the reproach of the heathen was put away.
59: Moreover Judas and his brethren with the whole congregation of Israel ordained, that the days of the dedication of the altar should be kept in their season from year to year by the space of eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month Casleu, with mirth and gladness.
60: At that time also they builded up the mount Sion with high walls and strong towers round about, lest the Gentiles should come and tread it down as they had done before.
61: And they set there a garrison to keep it, and fortified Bethsura to preserve it; that the people might have a defence against Idumea.
Note: There is no mention of Israel having no oil to light the seven branch menorah, [not nine branch] that is a man made tradition. Neither is it mentioned that said oil lasted for eight days. The reasonIsrael celebrates this holiday for eight days is recorded in 2nd Maccabees:1:18: ” Therefore whereas we are now purposed to keep the purification of the temple upon the five and twentieth day of the month Casleu, we thought it necessary to certify you thereof, that ye also might keep it, as the feast of the tabernacles, and of the fire, which was given us when Neemias offered sacrifice, after that he had builded the temple and the altar.”
Now we have a better understanding why the Apostle Johnmentions “The Feast of Dedication” the season it occurred-Winter and Christ entering the Temple at Solomons porch.
John 10 verses 22, 23 ” And it was at Jerusalem the Feast of Dedication, and it was winter. And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon’s porch.”